ПРЕДМЕТНОГО ЭЛЕКТИВНОГО КУРСА
Программа предлагаемого предметного элективного курса разработана в соответствии с задачами модернизации содержания образования и основными положениями Концепции предпрофильного и профильного обучения. Данный курс рассчитан на 16 часов и предназначен для учащихся 7-9 классов с Intermediate уровнем владения английским языком.
Необходимость создания данного элективного курса продиктована интегрированием лингвострановедческого подхода в обучении ИЯ с постоянным изучением фоновой информации и социокультурных реалий. Курс включает такие разделы как «Религия», «Английская еда», «Из истории ранней Британии», «Королевские династии», «Справочник культурных различий», содержащие информацию, которая поверхностно или вовсе не освещена в основном учебном пособии общеобразовательной школы.
Цель элективного курса – дальнейшее развитие коммуникативности и социально-культурной компетенции учащихся, без которой невозможно общение с представителями англоязычных стран, а также понимание истории, культуры, традиций и обычаев этих стран. Именно социокультурная компетенция является основой культурной грамотности, определяет понимание учащимися национально-культурных особенностей лексических единиц, экстралингвистических характеристик общения. Лингвострановедение способствует повышению интереса учащихся к английскому языку, расширению знаний в области изучаемого языка и их совершенствованию. Предлагаемый курс ознакомит учащихся с теми различиями в англоязычной культуре, с которыми придётся столкнуться в практической работе специалисту в области иностранного языка и даже простому туристу, посещающего Великобританию.
Основные принципы построения курса – развитие речевых умений и навыков, интеграция и дифференциация, реализующаяся через использование материала разного уровня сложностей и использование визуальных опор (план, структуры, ключевые слова и выражения).
Принципы отбора и структурирования материала:
1) аутентичность (использование неадаптированных текстов);
2) преемственность (курс направлен на расширение и углубление знаний по страноведению, которые были получены или приобретаются на уроках английского языка);
3) доступность (материал подобран с учётом сформированности умений и навыков);
4) социальная направленность.
По окончании курса учащиеся должны овладеть следующими навыками и умениями.
В сфере практической:
- лексическими навыками в соответствии с темами;
- а также навыками аудирования, монологической и диалогической речи, чтения текстов страноведческого характера.
В сфере социокультурной:
- приобретут и расширят объём социокультурных знаний;
- научатся понимать и интерпретировать изученные лингвокультурные факты.
В сфере учебно-познавательной учащиеся:
- углубят учебные знания, умения и навыки;
- обогатят свой словарный запас;
- научатся решать информационные проблемы, а именно: находить необходимую информацию, систематизировать и обрабатывать её.
В программу заложены тренировочные задания и упражнения, как чисто учебные, коммуникативные, аутентичные, так и поисково-игровые, познавательно-поисковые культуроведческие, коммуникативно-поисковые, коммуникативно-ориентированные и лингвистические поисковые.
В начале и по окончании занятий рекомендуется провести рефлексию обучающихся, которая позволяет определить степень эффективности излагаемого материала.
При оценке результатов изучения данного курса используются: текущий контроль (домашняя работа (мини-презентация), тестирование (взаимоконтроль), самоконтроль и скрытый контроль (ролевые игры).
К учебно-методическому комплексу прилагаются список использованной литературы, тексты для аудирования и подборка слайдов по темам.
Кол- во часов/
1. Из истории ранней Британии
2. Монархия в
4. Английская еда
Кельтский период. Римское завоевание. Адрианов вал. Англосаксы. Вильгельм Завоеватель. Завоевание Ирландии, Уэльса и Шотландии.
Королевские династии. Генрих VIII. Елизавета I. Королева Виктория. Елизавета II.
Католическая церковь. Англиканская церковь. Протестанты. Реалии, относящиеся к религии.
Традиционный английский завтрак. «Континентальный» завтрак. Традиционные блюда. Реалии, относящиеся к кухне Великобритании.
Начальное образование. Средние школы. 11+ экзамен. Университеты.
Национальный характер британцев. Британцы дома. Британцы на отдыхе. Семья. Повседневность.
Образ жизни британцев.
Тренировочные ситуативные упражнения «Что мне следует делать в следующих ситуациях?»
1. Белл Дж. The History of England (2-е издание). – СПб.: Питер Пресс, 1996.
2. Бурова И. И. The History of England. Absolute Monarchy. – СПб.: Питер Пресс, 1996.
3. Бурова И. И. The History of England. Parliamentary Monarchy. – СПб.: Питер Пресс, 1996.
4. Гурьева Ю. Ф. «Глубоки корни…»: Очерки по краткой истории Британии. Изд. 2-е, исправ. и допол.- Обнинск: Титул, 2006.
5. Кауфман К. И., Кауфман М. Ю. Страницы британской истории: Книга для чтения по английскому языку в 7-11 кл. общеобразов. учрежд. – Обнинск: Титул, 2005.
6.Ощепкова В. В., Шустилова И. И. Britain in Brief. М.: «Лист», 1998.
7. Ощепкова В. В. Язык и культура Великобритании, США, Канады, Австралии, Новой Зеландии. –М./СПб.: ГЛОССА/КАРО, 2004.
8. Рум А. Р. У. Великобритания: Лингвострановедческий словарь. – 3-е изд., стереотип. – М.: Рус. яз., 2002.
9. Сафонова В., Кузьмина Л., Смирнова Е. British Literature and Culture. Part I. – СПб.: Питер Паблишинг, 1997.
10. Сатинова В. Ф. Читаем и говорим о Британии и британцах. – 3-е изд. – Мн.: Выш. шк., 1998.
11. Химунина Т. Н. и др. В Великобритании принято так: Учеб. пособие для студентов пед. ин-тов по спец. №2103 «Иностр. яз.» - М.: Просвещение, 1984.
12. Экономакис Э. Справочник культурных различий. Русско-английский. Англо-русский. – СПб.:КАРО, 2006.
Комплекс разработан Вагановой И.И.,
преподавателем английского языка.
THEME 1. FROM HISTORY OF BRITAIN (3 lessons) (look at the picture)
LESSON 1. The Making of Britain. Earliest Times.
1. The Celtic Period.
2. The Roman Conquest. Hadrian’s Wall.
Britain, Great Britain, the UK, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, England, Albion, ‘Foggy’ Albion.
Albion is an ancient and poetic name for Great Britain, perhaps from the white (Latin albus) cliffs (скалы) of Dover, but possibly from Celtic alp, which means ‘rock’.
I. The text for reading and translation.
The Celtic Period. More than two thousand seven hundred years ago Celts came to Britain from Europe. They mixed in with the people who were already there and called Britons. They divided into tribes and each tribe had its king or queen. The most powerful members of tribes were Druids (priests). Their rituals involved human sacrifice. (Работа со слайдом Stonehenge).The Celts are important in British history because they are the ancestors of many of the people in Scotland, Wales and Ireland today.
II. The text for discussion. (Work in groups. Asking questions.)
The Roman Conquest. The Romans attacked Britain in 55 BC. Consul Julius Caesar had brought the army of 10,000 men. The Britons were much weaker than the well trained Romans, and soon fled. After the victory Julius Caesar soon left Britain. And the real invasion took place only in AD 43. Disciplined Roman legions spread out over the island, establishing camps, which soon grew into towns. Many Britons had to accept the Roman way of life, though some tribes tried to resist the enemies. The most famous revolt was led by Queen Boadicea (Boudicca).
The Romans built twenty large towns. (Many of these towns were at first army camps, and the Latin word for camp, castra, has remained part of many town names to this day: Chester, Lancaster, Winchester). They constructed central heating, baths and a system of well-paved roads. These roads continued to be used long after the Romans left and became the main roads of modern Britain. The Roman rule of Britain lasted for more than 300 years and ended only when northern European tribes invaded Italy.
III. Listening Comprehension. (Work in pairs. Exchanging opinions on new and interesting information. Did you know that…?)
Hadrian’s Wall (Адрианов вал).
The Picts – пикты, hide – скрываться, raid – совершать набеги, the Emperor Hadrian – император Адриан, defend - защищать, border - граница, forts -?
Celts – кельты
tribe – племя
priest – священник, жрец
ancestor – предок
BC – до н. э. before Christ
AD – н. э. anno Domini
Julius Caesar - Юлий Цезарь
fled ( to flee) – бежали
invasion – вторжение
establish – устанавливать, создавать
resist – сопротивляться
revolt – восстание
Boadicea (Boudicca) - Бодисия
pave – мостить, устилать
LESSON 2. The Making of Britain. Earliest Times. The Middle Ages.
1. Revision (Lesson 1).
2. The Anglo-Saxons. Vikings. King Alfred the Great.
3. The Norman Conquest. Robin Hood. William the Conqueror.
I. The text for reading and translation.
The Anglo-Saxons. In 383 the Roman legions began to leave Britain and there were not enough Roman soldiers to defend Britons from Picts and Scots. The British chiefs asked Anglo-Saxons to come from Germany to help them. Anglo-Saxons were strong and well trained, they defeated Picts and Scots, but when afterwards Britons asked them to leave their country they refused to do it and stayed. The Saxons created institutions which made the English state strong for the next 500 years. One of these institutions was the King's Council, called a Witan. Anglo-Saxons founded a lot of kingdoms: Kent, Essex, Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria.
In 789 more than three hundred years after the Anglo-Saxons had settled in Britain, the Vikings began to attack the British Isles. They came from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The winters were cold and long, the soil of their land was poor, so Britain was a rich prize for them. They made a strong army.
The quarrelling Anglo-Saxon kingdoms couldn't keep the Vikings out. And only King Alfred of Wessex held out against the invaders, who had already taken most of England. After some serious defeats he captured London. He was strong enough to make a treaty with the Vikings. King Alfred, the only ruler in England's history ever to be honoured with the epithet "the Great", became a national hero.
II. The text for discussion. (Work in groups. Discuss whether the Norman Conquest was good or evil.)
The Norman Conquest. The Danish kings ruled in Britain for about 24 years. The last of them, Edward the Confessor, died without a son to follow him. Before his death he had promised the English Crown to the Duke of Normandy, William, who was his cousin. But the British nobility didn't support him. So William, feeling cheated, gathered an army to invade England. On the 14 October, 1066 the Normans won a victory at the battle of Hastings and started the last invasion in the history of Britain.
William the Conqueror brought a new law and a new language. The Norman aristocracy spoke French. Most of the old Anglo-Danish aristocracy was depressed (притеснялись). Normans controlled government at all levels. William I wanted to know all about his new country. He ordered his servants to count all the population in England, their houses, castles and to measure their land. Later on this information was written in the famous Domesday Book. The people couldn't move from their land without the permission of their lord.
III. Listening Comprehension.
(Collecting interesting facts about Robin Hood.)
Fear -бояться, Saxon hatred for Norman rule, Sherwood Forest, Nottingham, "outlaw", weak - слабый, sword - сабля, longbow - лук, weapon - оружие.
defend - защищать
Anglo-Saxons - англосаксы
defeat – одержать победу
refuse - отказаться
Sweden – Швеция
Denmark – Дания
quarrel - ссориться
Norman Conquest – завоевание
Edward the Confessor - Эдуард Исповедник
feeling cheated – чувствуя себя обманутым
nobility – дворянство
William the Conqueror – Вильгельм Завоеватель
measure – измерить
Domesday Book – Книга судного дня
LESSON 3. Conquest of Wales, Scotland and Ireland
1. Revision (Lesson 2)
5. Do you know that … ?
I. The text for reading and translation.
Wales. Wales was settled by Celts, so the Welsh language is a Celtic language. Nobody had never been able to conquer this people. When their country was invaded they usually fled to the mountains. The Romans built cities in Wales, the English built great castles around, but the Welsh remained countrymen and preferred to be free. And only King Edward I, the one who conquered Wales in the 13th century and united this country with England. To control this part he made his son the first Prince of Wales. From that time the eldest son of the ruling king or queen has usually been made Prince of Wales.
Ireland. The island Ireland is divided into two parts: Northern Ireland (Ulster, an old name) belonging to the UK and the Republic of Ireland – a separate state named Eire in Irish. Ireland had been conquered by Normans by 1169. Thus, the country had been ruled both by Normans and the Irish chiefs. The King of England forced the Irish chiefs and Norman lords to accept his lordship and Ireland became under the British Crown. Through the whole history the people of Ireland tried to be free and the Irish continued to fight for independence. So in 1921 the north of the country chose to remain part of the Northern Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In 1949 the free state declared itself a republic and became known as the Irish Republic.
II. The text for discussion. Scotland. (Work in pairs. Asking questions.)
Scotland was divided between different groups of people: the Picts and Celts, who were the oldest inhabitants, the Scots, who came from Northern Ireland, the Britons, who were driven north by the Anglo-Saxon invaders of England. Scotland was ruled by the Scottish kings and they were so strong that England had no force to conquer this country. And only in 1603 the son of Mary Queen of Scots became the king of England and united Scotland with England.
III. Listening Comprehension. Do you know that … ? (Work in groups. Collecting pieces of information in the table.)
Cymru, Prince Charles (born 1948), wishing well (колодец), Welsh love spoon, wood – дерево, “Jones the Milk”, “Evans the School” ; Caledonia, Loch Ness, Robert Burns, greedy (скупые), McHale, kilt, “Eire land” – island and iron (железо), “Titanic”, O’Henry.
Invade – вторгаться
fled (flee) – бежали
ruling – управляя
divide – делить
Ulster – Ольстер
thus – таким образом
force – принудить, сила
accept – принять
lordship – покровительство
tried – пытались
inhabitants – жители
driven – вытеснены
THEME 2. THE ROYAL HOUSE OF GREAT BRITAIN (2 lessons)
LESSON 1. Royal Dynasties. (look at the picture)
1. From your experience. What do you know about British rulers?
2. Rulers of England.
I. What do you know about British rulers? (Work in groups. Sharing experiences.)
II. Look through the list and write down the main royal dynasties.
Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)
House of Normandy
William I (the Conqueror) (1066-1087)
died as a result of falling his horse. He had two sons. His granddaughter was married to the German Emperor and their son (Henry II) became the first Plantagenet.
House of Plantagenet
Henry II (1154-1189)
Edward I (1272-1307)
known as the “Hammer of the Scots” (he beat the Scots many times), stole(украл) the Stone of Destiny (судьба) which is still in Westminster Abbey and has been used for every coronation to this day. Beat the Welsh.
His grandson Edward III was famous for the fact that he started the Hundred Years’ War (1338-1453) which was carried during the reigns of Five English Kings.
The Lancaster and York Kings
The Dukes of Lancaster and York (two new royal branches (ветвь) quarrel about who should be King of England and their armies fought a long war. Yorkists used a white rose as their symbol while Lancastrians used a red one. Wars of the Roses ended when Lancastrian Henry beat King Richard III and became the First Tudor King, Henry VII. He married to unite families of York and Lancaster.
House of Tudor
Henry VII (1485-1509)
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
God rid of (избавился) the Catholic Church in England and became the head of the new Church, built the first modern navy (морской флот), all in all he had six wives.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) his second daughter, the greatest monarch has ever known, died unmarried and childless. “The Golden Age of Elizabeth”. She had the body “of a weak and feeble woman”, she had “the heart and stomach of a king”. The Spanish Armada.
House of Stuart
James I of England and IV of Scotland (1603-1625)
On November 5th in the year 1605 the famous Gunpowder Plot was held as a protest against the sharp anti-Catholic laws of King James I.
Charles I (1625-1649)
He was beheaded and Parliament declared that the monarchy was over and England was a republic. The Puritan leader of the Parliamentary army Oliver Cromwell, a farmer in the past, ruled the country and created a “Commonwealth” or “Free State”.
Charles II (1660-1685) landed in England and restored Monarchy.
Houses of Hanover (German branch)
George I (1714-1727) was elderly and could speak no English.
Victoria (1837-1901) became queen at the age of eighteen in 1837 and reigned until her death in 1901. She married a German, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg, and became a strict mother to their nine children. She was hardworking, religious and devoted to her family. When her husband died at the age of forty-two, Victoria couldn’t get over her sorrow at his death, and for a long time refused to be seen in public. The British Empire has expanded to almost a fifth of the world land’s mass and a quarter of the world’s population.
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Edward VII (1901-1910)
House of Windsor
George V (1910-1936), the grandson of Queen Victoria.
Edward VIII (1936)
George VI (1936-1952), the father of Queen Elizabeth II.
Elizabeth II (1952 –
LESSON 2. Royal Dynasties.
1. Homework. Making a picture gallery “British Rulers”. (Work in groups. Out-of-school activities.)
THEME 3. RELIGION (1 lesson)
1. Revision (Picture Gallery).
2. The Main Branches.
3. History of Religion in Great Britain.
4. Items, connected with religion.
I. Revision. Presentations.
II. Look at these pieces of information and analyze them. (Work in groups.)
Christianity has some branches: the Orthodox (Greek) Church, Catholicism, Protestantism, etc.
III. The text for reading and discussion. (Work in pairs. Practising questions.) (look at the picture)
The first information about religious beliefs of the settlers of Great Britain comes back to Bronze Age. No one really knows what god bronze Man really prayed to; perhaps they prayed to the Sun. But temples that they built thirty hundred years ago or more are still standing in many parts of England and Scotland, to remind us that they believed in a god. The greatest of them is Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Druid is a member of the ancient Celtic priesthood of Britain, Ireland and France before Christian religion.
The Romans brought Christianity (Catholicism) to Britain and the British Church became a strong institution.
Edward the Confessor was a religious man and devoted his attention to the construction of churches. He built Westminster Abbey.
Henry VIII was a true catholic and a grateful Pope awarded him the title of (1) Defender of the Faith. But Henry was short of money and wanted the wealth of the monasteries. So he (2) broke away from the Catholic Church and set up his own Church of England (Anglican Church).
Protestants were supporters of this Church and against the Catholics. In Scotland there were Presbyterians ( their own branch of Calvinism – they denied the Pope, the King, the bishops ) against the Catholics. The English Reformation movement against the Roman Catholic Church began. In 17 century the Puritans strengthened this struggle for “purifying” the Church (denied ritualistic aspects). So, in Great Britain there are two State Churches: Anglican (27 mln people) and Presbyterian in Scotland. There are no State Churches in Wales and Northern Ireland. About 9 mln Catholics live in Great Britain, most in Northern Ireland.
IV. Listening Comprehension. Items.
Even number –чётное число, odd number – нечётное число, baptize – крестить, God’s slave, soldier of God – член небесного войска, cemetery – кладбище
Orthodox - православный
belief – вера, верование, убеждение
pray – молиться
temple – храм
(1) – защитник веры
(2) – порвал с католической церковью и основал собственную Англиканскую церковь
Presbyterians – пресвитериане
bishop – епископ
THEME 4. MEALS IN ENGLAND (2 lessons)
2. “Continental” breakfast.
3. Traditional dishes.
I. The text for reading and translation. Mealtimes. (Work in pairs. Asking questions.)
Meals and mealtimes in England are not the same in all families. The usual meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner; or, in simpler homes, breakfast, dinner, tea and supper.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It is generally a bigger meal than people have on the Continent (Europe). A “continental” breakfast consists of rolls and butter and coffee. But the usual English breakfast is porridge or “Corn Flakes” with milk or cream and sugar (A good Scotsman never puts sugar on porridge – “To me, putting sugar on porridge is like putting it on bacon and eggs”), bacon and eggs, marmalade with buttered toast, and tea or coffee. For a change they can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or perhaps fish. But most people do not have a full breakfast and it is often a rather hurried and informal meal.
At one o’clock comes a meal which is dinner to some people, lunch for others. More than half the population has a hot dinner (sometimes called lunch) in the middle of the day, and a cool meal in the evening. Lunch is cold meat, potatoes, salad, pickles, with pudding or fruit to follow.
The next meal is tea (5 o’clock tea), with slices of bread and butter, cakes, and of course cups of tea.
In the evening some people have a main meal, called dinner. They begin with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, a sweet, fruit and nuts. Others have the much simpler supper – an omelette or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit. In Scotland people have no use for “afternoon teas” and always have “high tea” instead of dinner.
II. Information for discussion. Traditional dishes.
English food has often described as tasteless. And one of the reason is the way that vegetables are cooked. It would be unfair to say that all English food is bad! A visitor if invited to an English home might well enjoy steak and kidney pudding or pie, saddle of mutton with red-current jelly, all sorts of smoked fish, especially kippers, boiled salt beef and carrots, Cornish pasties and haggis in Scotland.
for a change – для разнообразия
ham – ветчина
hurry – спешить
pickles – соленья
unfair – несправедливо
kidney – почка
saddle of mutton – седло барашка
kippers - селёдка
Cornish pasties – пироги с мясом и картошкой
1. Items from the British cuisine. Cultural differences.
2. What should I do in the following situations?
I. Read, compare, discuss. Cultural differences. (Work in groups. Comparing.)
1. The British eat much faster than in Russia. In America people eat so fast that sometimes they don’t even talk to each other while eating.
2. One of the main dishes for breakfast in Britain is fried bacon and eggs. They never eat uncooked bacon.
3. In England people say “the sugar” regardless of what form it is in (cubes, granulated, refined). They don’t understand the Russian “pesok”.
4. “Go Dutch” is the common practice if you have invited somebody to join you at a bar, or a restaurant. It means sharing expenses.
5. In the West to eat everything on one’s plate is a sign of bad manners. The British leave some small items of food to show they are not hungry.
6. The British use a knife and a fork while eating. An American uses a knife only to cut and then put it aside.
7. The British seldom put lemon in their tea. They drink tea with cream or milk. First of all they fill a cup with cream or milk and then add tea.
8. The British don’t say “Good appetite” to people while having a meal.
9. The most popular English meal is fish and chips.
10. Most tourists spend most of their time visiting the pub.
II. Some tips in situations. (Work in pairs.).
1. Should I shake hands across a threshold?
2. Should I provide short explanations for why I can’t be at some meeting or can’t do something?
3. Should I take my shoes off when entering a person’s apartment.
4. Can I drink alcohol beverages, for example beer, outdoors?
5. Must I always leave a tip at a restaurant?
6. Can I buy salo in Britain?
7. Should I remove empty bottles of whiskey, wine, or beer from the table?
III. Listening Comprehension. Do you know that …?
1. Sandwich, politician, Earl – граф, gambling – азартная игра, Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands), a sandwich-man, board – щит, доска, over one’s chest – на груди. (look at the picture)
2. “Barbecue”, process of cooking, “shish-kebob”.
3. Plum pudding, raisins (изюм), traditional Christmas dessert; blood-pudding, biscuits.
4. V.S.O.P. – Very Superb Old Pale, коньяк выдержанный высшего качества.
5. Russian salad.
miscellaneous - разное
regardless of – несмотря на
sharing expenses – делить расходы
threshold – порог
THEME 5. EDUCATION (2 lessons)
LESSONS 1, 2.
1. School in Great Britain. Peculiarities of the educational system:
a) length of learning,
c) 11-plus examination,
d) core subjects.
I. Speaking. School in Great Britain. (Work in groups. Comparing with education in Russia)
Eton – a secondary school for boys; in 1440 year; 1,250 students for five years; twenty of Britain’s Prime Ministers were educated.
Harrow school – former students Churchill, Nehru.
SCHOOL in GREAT BRITAIN
Education in Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16. About 93 percent of all children are educated in state schools and the rest attend private schools.
Primary School. Schoolchildren attend a primary school for 6years (5 to 11 years). The division between primary and secondary education is at the age of 11 when almost all children in the state system change schools. When students transfer to Secondary School at the age of 11, they don’t take any exam, but their reports are sent on from the Primary School.
Secondary School. Most children – over 80 per cent – go to a comprehensive school. Comprehensive schools admit pupils of all abilities. But there are also ‘grammar schools’ and ‘ modern schools’ – they are a type of secondary school. At 11 children take the ‘11plus’ examination. Those who pass it, go on to grammar schools, which prepare students for higher education. Those who fail it, go on modern schools, which prepare students for manual and skilled employment. All types of secondary schools have the 5-year courses. The national curriculum consists of 10 subjects which all the children must study: core subjects – English, Maths and Science and foundation subjects – History, Geography, a Modern Language, Technology, Art, Music and Physical Education. Religious education is also taught. Attainments tests are given at the ages of 7, 11 and 14. At the end of a 5-year course, at the age of 16, students sit the G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) exams. Weak students may only sit for three or four subjects. Better students take ten subjects. At the age of 16 about two thirds of these pupils leave school and get jobs. About one third stay on at school until the age of 18, preparing themselves for higher education.
The 6th Form. More ambitious pupils continue to study in the 6th form. They stay on at school for one or two years and have only three or four main subjects which are necessary to pass the advanced level exams at the age of 18. In addition to the foundation subjects the 6th formers are offered many other courses at Advanced Level such as Classical Civilization, Further Maths, History of Art, Social Biology and many others. The GCE Advanced Level exam is the main standard for entrance to university or other higher education.
Public Schools. Eton (1440) for boys only, Rugby (1567), Harrow (1571).
All British universities are private institutions. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant. (Oxford, Cambridge – Oxbridge).
(look at tne picture)
II. Listening Comprehension. Universities. (Work in pairs. Sharing information).
The Bachelor’s degree – after three or four years, Bachelor of Arts, etc.
The Master’s degree – the first postgraduates degree.
Doctor of … (Philosophy) – the highest degree for original research work.
Oxbridge – an adjective made from the words “Oxford” and “Cambridge”.
Oxford –12 century, 34 colleges for men and two for women; 9,000 students.
Cambridge – 13 century; 32 independent colleges; 10,000 students.
1. Letters for marks. (A, B, C, E, F) A means 5.
2. I bombed my exam (I failed my exam).
3. College gives higher education.
4. Scientist, scholar.
6. The prom. (The Last Bell).
7. Less affords to get Ph. D.
THEME 6. ENGLISH MENTALITY (3 lessons)
1. English characteristics.
2. The Scottish people as they are.
3. The Irish.
4. The Welsh.
I. Read and translate the text. English characteristics. (Collecting pieces of information in the table.) (look at the picture)
The national character of the English has been differently described, but the best-known quality of the English is reserve. A reserved person is one who does not talk very much to strangers, does not show much emotion. If English people are making a journey by train, they will try to find an empty compartment. If they have to share the compartment with a stranger, they may travel many miles without starting a conversation. If a conversation does start, personal questions like “How old are you?” or even “what is your name?” are not easily asked. Questions like “Where did you buy your watch?” or “What is your salary?” are impossible.
Closely related to English reserve is English modesty. If a person is, let us say, very good in golf, and someone asks him if he is a good player, he will probably give an answer like “I’m not bad”, or “I think I’m quite good”, or “Well, I’m very keen on golf”.
The English are practical and realistic, prudent and careful almost everything. Everything is orderly: the lawns and the trees are neatly trimmed. Every Englishman is said to be a countryman at heart. The English countryside is many things to many people. It stands for freshness, for leisure, fun and games.
Humor is highly prized in Great Britain. “He has no sense of humor” or “He is a man of humor” is often heard. English people do not readily ask each other to do anything, they prefer to wait for a service to be offered before asking for it. If they do ask, then they say something like “I don’t really like asking you, but…”
II. Look through the following information and write down the characteristics of the Welsh, the Irish and the Scottish people.
Stereotypes are certainly not reliable descriptions of individual people but they still exist.
The Irish. The Irish are known for their charm as well as for the beauty of the Irish girls. They are supposed to be great talkers. Many great names of English literature were, in fact, Irish or had an Irish background (Jonathan Swift “Gulliver’s Travels”, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw).
The Welsh. They are an emotional people but sometimes reticent. The Welsh are renowned for their singing ability. Special festivals are held to encourage Welsh literature and music. The Welsh are countrymen, not townsmen.
The Scots are said to be a serious people, rather inventive and somewhat mystical. They have a reputation for being careful with money (the stingiest people on the earth). People say that Scotsmen work hard: many good doctors and engineers come from Scotland (Alexander Fleming – ‘father of antibiotics’, Robert Louis Stevenson (“Treasure Island”), Robert Burns, Walter Scott, James Clerk Maxwell, a great mathematician and physician).
compartment – купе
salary - зарплата
modesty – скромность
to be very keen on – to be interested in
prudent – благоразумный, расчётливый
exist – существовать
reticent – сдержанный
stingy – скупой
THEME 6. ENGLISH MINTALITY (3 lessons)
LESSONS 2, 3.
2. Recreations. TV viewing. Listening to music. Gardening. Do-it-yourself.
3. Home, Sweet Home.
4. The British at leisure.
5. Confused words and phrases.
I. Listening Comprehension. Recreations. (Work in pairs. Share new information).
TV viewing, average (в среднем), “soap operas”; Listening to music, considerable (значительный); Gardening, private, trim (подравнивать), cultivate, annual (ежегодный); Do-it-yourself, improvements, DIY.
II. The text for reading and translating. (Work in groups. Asking questions).
Home, sweet home. To the British their homes are important. They are dedicated to them, they give them a lot of time and effort, looking after their homes with much love, care and enthusiasm. More than half of British families own their homes. About one third of the population live in council accommodation (provided by local authority at a low rent for working people who cannot afford to buy a house). Some people rent from private owners.
Types of houses:
A detached house – the most expensive, on its own land, have much privacy, ideal for keen gardener; semi-detached – joined to the house next door by a shared wall, less expensive, a small garden at the back and at the front; terraced –two-three-stories high, a row of similar houses, for workers in factories or coalmines; bungalows – one-storey, popular with older people; country cottages; apartment blocks – for city dwellers, 20% of the population, not very popular.
III. Look through the following information and write down pleasant spare-time occupations. The British at leisure. Popular pastimes.
The British have a reputation for being mad about sports. In fact they enjoy watching sports rather than playing then. The British are natural spectators and the most popular spectator sports are cricket and football.
The British climate confines many outdoor activities. People enjoy rambling, climbing and cycling. On holidays, on weekends or days off people often go for day “outings” (parks, private gardens, special exhibitions). Whether the British have a boat or not, they like to spend some time at the seaside.
IV. Enlarge your vocabulary. Confused words and phrases.
Battery –аккумулятор, radiator – батарея; boys – till 16, girls – till 13 (young men and women); yard – открытое место перед зданием, courtyard – внутренний двор; “for a rainy day” –« на чёрный день»; journal – газета; cold – простуда, насморк; fingers, toes; “I could eat a horse”; 80 proof; foodstuffs, produce – продукты (not products); character – герой фильма или книги, personality; Channel One (not first); сутки – twenty-four hours, целые сутки – for days and nights; сквер – public garden, not square; праздничный стол – holiday table, Easter table; focus – (not tricks); sympathy – сочувствие (liking); шведский стол – buffet, Smorgasbord, not Swedish tаble.
Dedicate - посвящать
effort – попытка
council – совет (городской совет)
authority – (администрация)
afford – позволить
detached – отдельный
a row of similar – ряд одинаковых
dwellers – жители
confine – ограничивает
rambling – прогулка, экскурсия.
THEME 7. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES (2 lessons).
LESSON 1. WHAT SHOULD I DO IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS?
I. Offer your suggestions on these questions in pairs and then check your answers. (Work in pairs.)
1. Do I have to pay for a person I’ve invited to join me at a bar, restaurant, or cinema?
2. Should I take my shoes off when entering a person’s house or apartment?
3. Should I take my coat off in a clinic or hospital?
4. Must I always leave a tip at a restaurant?
5. How do Westerners eat mushrooms?
6. Do I have to tip taxi drivers?
7. Should I get out of the car if I am the driver and I have been pulled over by a traffic cop?
8. Should I try to bribe a traffic policeman?
9. Where can I smoke in business centers in Canada, Britain or the States?
10. Are there intermissions in Western cinemas?
11. How can I say someone is an «интеллигент» in English?
12. How should I dress at work in London?
13. What kind of rings can a man wear?
14. Should I iron my jeans?
15. Should I squat when tired and waiting somewhere where there is no seat?
1. No, most foreigners “Go Dutch”. This is not romantic, but it is the common practice.
2. No, people don’t remove their shoes in the West.
3. No, this is not necessary.
4. Yes. You don’t have to leave a tip if “Service Included” is written on the check or menu.
5. People wash them, then slice them and put them into salad. They don’t fry them or cook.
6. Always – about 10%.
7. Stay in the car. The cop may shoot if you get out.
8. No, you will get into big trouble if you do.
9. Nowadays you can smoke only in the street – even in the winter.
11. You can’t. The term and concept does not exit in English.
12. More formally than in Russia. If you are a man, always wear a tie.
13. One ring, maximum. Silver or platinum, not gold.
14. Jeans should never meet an iron.
15. No, you might be mistaken for someone from some Arabic or African village. People don’t squat in public places in the West.
apartment - flat
tip – чаевые
traffic – уличное движение
bribe – взятка
intermission – пауза, перерыв. антракт
squat– сидеть на корточках
common – общепринятый
slice – резать на тонкие кусочки
concept – понятие
THEME 7. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
CONFUSED WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS. (Listening Comprehension.)
TYPICAL MISTAKES (Analyzing speech behavior).
Don't say: (On the phone) It is Ivan/ Olga.
Say: Ivan/ Olga speaking.
Don't say: I work in IBM.
Say: I work at IBM.
Don't say: He is a very good sportsman.
Say: He is a very good athlete.
Don't say: I have high education.
Say: I have higher education.
Don't say: I have two higher educations.
Say: I have two degrees.
Don't say: I know it exactly.
Say: I know it for sure.
Don't say: Peru is a south country.
Say: Peru is a southern country.
Don't say: Two our friends came by.
Say: Two of our friends came up.
Don't say: We have no any information.
Say: We have no information.
Don't say: I feel badly.
Say: I feel bad.
Don't say: Anton dated with Ann.
Say: Anton dated Ann.
Don't say: Irina married a twenty-six years old man.
Say: Irina married a twenty-six year old man.
Don't say: "No problems! "
Say: "No problem!"
Don't say: Oksana has a very good mood.
Say: Oksana is in a very good mood.
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ АУДИРОВАНИЯ
The Roman army marched deep into the countryside. They made alliances with some tribes and conquered others one by one. Slowly, they drove their enemies into the mountains of Wales and Scotland.
The Roman built forts in Wales and in the north of England to protect their land. The fierce, unconquered tribes (Picts and Scots) hiding in the mountains and valleys of Scotland raided northern England again and again.
The Emperor Hadrian decided to build a wall right across the country to control them. 15,000 Roman soldiers guarded the wall, which was 120 kilometres long and about 4 metres high. Every 8 kilimetres there was a large fort, which could hold up to 1,000 Roman soldiers. About every 1,500 metres there was a small fort called a milecastle, which could hold up to 30 soldiers. Romans guarded the wall all the time. If the tribes attacked, they ran for help or signalled with flags or fires.
If you come to England, you can see Hadrian’s wall.
In the early days of the Conquest Saxons and Normans feared and hated each other. The famous stories of Robin Hood grew out of Saxon hatred for Norman rule.
According to the legend Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest near Nottingham as a criminal or “outlaw”, outside society and the protection of the law. He stole from the rich and gave to the poor, and he stood up for the weak against the powerful. His weapon was not the sword of nobles and knights, but the longbow, the weapon of the common man.
DO YOU KNOW THAT…
…Wales –from old English Wealas, plural of wealh, “foreigner”, applied to the Britons by the Anglo-Saxons. The Welsh name for their own land is Cymru which means “friend”.
…Wales is a country ruled by a prince. The title of “Prince of Wales” is traditionally given by the British sovereign to his or her eldest son, who is heir to the throne. The present Prince of Wales is Prince Charles (born 1948), eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II.
… wishing wells and love spoons are the most popular items among tourists. The typical Welsh names are Jones and Evans.
… Caledonia is the Roman name for Scotland but now used only in poetry.
… Loch Ness is probably Scotland’s best known lake, because of the Loch Ness Monster which may live in the deep water.
… the Scots are known to be greedy.
… Robert Burns is Scotland’s national poet.
… most Scottish names begin with Mc (son).
… Scotland is associated with kilts and bagpipes.
… the name “Ireland” comes from Gaelic “iron”.
… the “Titanic”, a British passenger liner, sank when she collided with an iceberg. The liner was built in Belfast and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage to New York in1912.
… most Irish family names begin with O’.
In England the number of flowers is not important. At funerals people can bring odd numbers of flowers and give even numbers of roses when going to a wedding.
The question “Are you Orthodox?” means “Вы православный?”
“Baptize” stands for “крестить”.
The British call themselves “soldiers of God” and sit while public worshiping.
DO YOU KNOW THAT …
… the word “sandwich” comes from the name of an English politician, John Montague, the Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792), who was very fond of gambling. He invented sandwiches in order to be able to eat without leaving the gambling table. He also gave his name to the Sandwich Islands, which are now called the Hawaiian Islands. A sandwich-man is not a man who sells sandwiches. It is a man who walks about the streets, carrying advertisements on two boards, one hanging over his chest and the other on his back.
… in English the word “barbecue” is usually used as a noun describing a process of cooking; “shish-kebob” is what people prefer to when they mean “shashlik”;
… some English dishes are associated with popular celebrations. So, plum pudding (with raisins but not with plums) is a traditional Christmas dessert. Among confused words are blood (black) pudding (standing for кровяная колбаса), biscuits (сухое печенье).
… there is only one word in English for “вишня” and “черешня”. It is cherry.
… Russian salad is known as “оливье”.
All British universities are private institutions. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities of the place where he lives.
Students studying for first degrees are known as “undergraduates”. They learn a new way of studying which is different from that of school. They have lectures and regular seminars. The students also see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress.
The Bachelor’s degree. After three or four years (depending on the type of the university) the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor’s degree: Bachelor of Arts (BA) for History, Philosophy, Language and Literature; or Bachelor of Science (BSc) or Commerce or Music.
The Master’s degree. The first postgraduate degree is normally that of Master: Master of Arts (MA); Master of Science (MSc).
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge.
The most famous universities in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford University was created in the first years of the thirteenth century when students expelled from the Sorbonne in Paris came to Oxford city monasteries to study. Like Cambridge, Oxford University is a group of independent colleges. There are now 34.
Cambridge University consists of a group of 32 independent colleges. The first students came to the city in 1209 and studied in the schools of the cathedral and monasteries. Today Cambridge is famous for the quality of its scientific research.
Oxbridge is an adjective made from the words “Oxford” and “Cambridge”. It is used to describe the type of people who go there, usually the most influential people in the country, and the system of beliefs they have.
It has been estimated that the average British person spends 75 hours every week with television, radio, newspapers and magazines. All these sources of information, ideas and entertainments, together with film, video, and advertisements have become a part of daily life.
Watching television is a very popular leisure pastime in Britain. A typical day’s viewing includes films, plays, current affairs, light entertainments, sport and politics. A lot of people enjoy “soap operas”.
Another favourite activity is listening to music on radio, records, cassette tapes, and CDs. Enthusiasts of pop music spend millions of pounds a year on records and stereo music systems. There is, too, a considerable audience for classical music.
Britain is famous for its gardens and most people like gardening. Many people who live in apartments, or who have very small gardens, rent a piece of land from their local council where they can cultivate flowers and vegetables. Almost every village and town holds an annual flower show in summer.
A popular British hobby is an activity of making or repairing things yourself, instead of buying things ready made or paying a workman to do the work for you, called DIY (do-it-yourself).
CONFUSED WORDS AND PHRASES
“Medic” stands for “фельдшер”. “Boot” means “сапог” and “ботинок”. “Caucasian” is “белый человек” in Russian. “Города-побратимы” is the Russian for “sister-cities”. You’d better say “handicapped” instead of “invalid”. “Genial” stands for “добрый, сердечный, тёплый”. Don’t mix “gourmand” (обжора) and “gourmet” (гурман).